of the state of Bahawalpur was Nawab Bahawal Khan Abbasi
I. The abbasi family ruled over the state more than 200
years (1748 to 1954). During the rule of the last Nawab
Sir Sadiq Khan Abbasi V, Bahawalpur State was merged with
Pakistan in 1954. Bahawalpur was formerly the capital of
the state and now is the District Divisional Headquarters
of Bahawalpur division. It is an important marketing center
for surrounding areas and is located on the crossroads between
Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta and Karachi. Saraiki is the local
language of the area. Urdu, Punjabi and English are also
spoken and understood by most of the people.
Central Library: It is housed in a building having
fine architectural value. The foundation stone of
this building was laid by the then governor and viceroy
of India Sir Rufus Danial Issacs on 8 March, 1924
to mark the installation of late Nawab of Bahawalpur
Sir Sadiq Mohammad Khan Abbasi V. The central library
was established in 1947 in this building. It has a
vast collection of books and rare manuscripts. It
is one of the best libraries in Pakistan and visited
by students and scholars from within the country and
Bahawalpur has a modest museum with a fine collection of
coins, medals, postage stamps of former state of Bahawalpur,
manuscripts, documents, inscriptions, wood carvings, camel
skin paintings, historical models and stone carvings etc.
of Islamic and pre-Islamic period. There is a complete set
of models of all classes issued by the ex state to its military
officers civilians and to other important citizens of the
The zoological garden of Bahawalpur is considered to be
one of the best in the country. Spread over an area of 25acres
of land, it has an interesting collection of 120 animals
and 750 birds of tropical areas, particularly those found
in this region. The zoo has the distinction of occasional
breeding of lions and supply of beasts to other zoos in
the country. It also has a aquarium and zoological museum
with stuffed rare birds and animals.
Bahawalpur has one of the finest stadiums in the country
having fine cricket grounds, two football grounds one basket
ball court and lawn tennis courts and covered swimming pool.
There is also a hockey stadium, which is considered to be
the second best in the country after Karachi Stadium. It
can accommodate 13000 people at a time.
of Muluk Shah
The shrine of Muluk Shah, a popular saint of his time,
is located in the city and visited by devotees on every
Thursday ashura and Eid days. A small fair is also held
Jamia Masjid Al Sadiq
It was made by the Nawab Sadiq Mohammad Khan Abbasi V at
the elevation of more than 12ft from earth. It can house
50,000 to 60,000 people at a time, during the Eid festivals.
It is well-reputed mosque in Pakistan like other prominent
mosques of Pakistan.
Uch, 75 km from Bahawalpur, is a very old town, it is believed
that it existed even in 500 B.C. Some historians believe
that Uch was there even before the advent of Bikramajit
when Jains and Bhudhists ruled over sub continent. At the
time of the invasion by Alexander the Great, Uch was under
Hindu rule. Some historians say that Alexander came to Uch
after conquering northern parts of India and spent over
a fortnight in the city and renamed it Alexandariya. Some
have mentioned Uch by the name of Sikandara or Iskalanda.
They have decided it as the most flourishing and beautiful
town perched upon the Plateau near the confluence of the
Chanab and Rave rivers. Famous shrines existing at Uch include
those of Hazrat Bahawal Haleem, Hazrat Jalal-ud-din Surkh
Bokhari, Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, Bibi Jawindi and
Sheikh Saif-ud-din Ghazrooni etc.
Uch is a small town today and divided into three different
quarters known as:
(i) Uch Bokhari, after Hazrat Syed Jalal-ud-din Bokhari
(ii) Uch Jilani (Bandagi), who came from Halab in 887A.H.,
(iii) Uch Mughlan after the Mughal rulers.
Makhdoom Sahib of Uch Bokhari has some rare Islamic relics
in his possession for example,
(i) Turban of Holy Prophet (PBUH),
(ii) A mantle of the Prophet (PBUH)
(iii) “Samsam” (sword) of Hazrat Imam Hasan,
(iv) a cap and turbine of Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
of Baghdad and
(v) mantle of Hazrat Salman Farsi.
Makhdoom Sahib Uch Jilani is the custodian of
(i) Holy Prophets footprints
(ii) a few chapter of the Holy Quran written by Hazrat Imam
(iii) a tooth of Hazrat Awais Qarni.
above couple let by a Persian poet describes the primordial
environment of the historic city of Multan. But that has
changed now and not only the city of Multan but the district
itself has been transformed into a green, fertile area.
It is fact becoming an industrial town. The city has its
own charm, culture and crafts. The origin of the name ‘Multan’
is obscure and so is the period of its founding. It has
been Mulosan pulu by Hiuen Tsang and Alberuni called it
Multana, which ultimately came to be called Multan.
history of Multan prior to the arrival of Arabs in
the 8th century A.D is obscure. Alexander is said
to have passed through the district in about 325-326
B.C, but his route cannot be traced. It is probable
that Multan was the city of Malli which Alexander
stormed and where he was wounded. About
327 B.C. the Macedonians were ousted by Chandragupta
and the Maurya dynasty remained in power till the
beginning of the second century A.D. From 30 B.C to
470 A.D., the Kushan dynasty ruled over the area,
and from 470 A.D to 550 A.D., the White Huns are believed
to have held sway.
Multan figured as the capital of an important province
of the kingdom of Sindh in the writings of the early
Arab geographers. At the time the Arabs first came
to Sindh, the country was ruled by Raja Chach, a Brahmin.
Multan was conquered by Arabs under Muhammad Bin Qasim
in 712 A.D . After defeating Raja Dahir, a descendant
Thereafter, the town remained for the three centuries the
out post of Islam in India, under the caliph of Baghdad.
It remained nominally subject to the Lodhies, Ghaznavids
and Muhammad Ghauri upto the end of 12th century. From the
beginning of the 13th century for the next three centuries
, the history of Multan is practically the history of the
incursions from western and central Asia.
In 1397 came the invasion by Taimur, whose troops occupied
Uch and Multan, sacked Tulamba, raided the Kohkhars of Ravi
and past across Biass to Pakpattan and Delhi. In 1528, comes
the peace full transfer of the province of Multan to the
emissaries of the Mughal Emperor Babar. Under the Mughal
Emperors, Multan enjoyed a long period of peace between
1528-1748 and was known as Dar-ul-Aman.
In 1752 Multan became a province owing allegiance to Afghan
kings. It was then ruled by Pathan governors and Daud Putra
chiefs of Bahawlpur for some time. After 1771, Multan witnessed
continued warfare between Sikhs and the Nawabs of Multan.
Between 1818 and 1845, it remained under the Sikh rule and
finally came under the British rule in 1849.
Multan city has the distinction of being the birthplace
of three distinguished man in history Muhammad Tughlaq is
said to have been born in 13th century in a hamlet and the
place, which is known as “ Kotla Toleh Khan “.
Emperor Bahlole Lodhi was born in Qazian Wala Makan near
Hussain Agahi. Ahmed Shah Abdali, the first Durrani sovereign
of Afghanistan , was also born at Multan in 1722.
city of Multan is bound on the north by the depression
lying between it and the front and on all other sides
by a brick wall. It has six gates i.e. Lohari gate,
Pak gate, Bohar gate, Delhi gate, Haram gate and Daulat
old city has narrow colorful bazaars full of local
handicrafts and narrow winding lanes. There are many
places of historical, cultural and recreational interest
in the city.
Multan Fort was built on a mound separating it room the
city by old bed of river Ravi. Its date cannot be fixed
with accuracy. When intact, its circumference was 6,600
ft. having 46 bastions, including two towers at each of
the four gates i.e., Delhi gate, Khizri gate, Sikhi gate
and Rehri gate. The fort was ravaged by the British to avenge
the murder of one Mr. Agnew in 1948. At present it is survived
by some parts of the old rampart and bastions besides the
shrines of Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria and Shah Rukne-e-Alam,
an obelisk in memory of Agnew and a Hindu temple. The famous
Qasim Bagh and a stadium are located within the walls of
the fort. A panoramic view of Multan city can be had from
the highest point in the fort.
devastation of Khorasan and Western Iran was to the
benefit of this part of Pakistan, for it led to the
setting in this city of a large Gardezi Syeds and
Qureshis from Khwarizm, amongst whom Shiekh Bahauddin
Zakaria is a famous saint. About the same time Pir
Shams Sabzawari from Sabzwar and Kazi Qutubuddin from
Kashan came to Multan. Baba Farid Shakar Ganj was
born in a village of Multan , and settled in Pakpattan.
Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki passed through Multan
to Delhi and Syed Jalal, the spiritual leader of many
families in Multan, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur came
Sultan Sikhi Sarwar’s father also emigrated form
Bukhara to Sarwar Shah Kot in Multan district. These venerable
men contributed greatly to spreading Islam in this area.
The saints and shrines of Multan have been attracting a
large number of devotees all year round.
One of the foremost scholars of Islam, Sheikh Baha-ud-din
Zakaria’s shrine is located in the fort. He was born
in 1170 A.D., studied in Turan and Iran and received instructions
from Sheikh Shahab-ud-din Suharwardi at Baghdad. His mausoleum
was built by the saint himself. It was a unique style of
architecture of that period, a only other being at Sonepat
in India. It also houses the graves of most of the eminent
members of the Qureshi family, including that of Nawab Muzaffar
The mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e –Alam, the grand son
of Sheikh Bahauddin Zakaria, this also located near the
main gate of the Multan fort. He was also a man of great
religious and political influence during the Tughlaq region
and was in Multan when it was visited by Ibn-e-Batuta. The
Mausoleum was originally built by emperor Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq
but was given up by his son Muhammad Tughlaq in favor of
Shah Rukn-e-Alam . Besides its religious importance, the
mausoleum has a unique architectural value. Its dome is
considered to be the second largest in the world. The mausoleum
has recently being given the Agha Khan award for the best
Muslim architecture. Some of the interesting statistics
of its architecture are:
(a) Total height of the road level is 150ft
(b) Total height of building is 100ft
(c) Octagonal upper structure diameter is 26ft
(d) Octagonal lower structure diameter is 52ft
(e) The dome on top has a diameter of 58ft
The mausoleum has very rich geometric pattern, calligraphy
and colorful floral, mosaic and glaze tile work. The shrine
is visited by devotees all year around.
The shrine of Hazrat Shams Sabzwari is located near Aam-khas
garden. A descended of Imam Jaffar, he was born in 1165
A.D., the saint died in 1276 A.D., and is shrine was built
by his grand son in 1330 A.D.
Other shrines in Multan include those of Mohammad Yousaf
Gardezi near Bohar Gate, Musa Pak Shaheed inside the Pak
Gate, Totla Mai Haram Gate, Shah Ali Akbar, a descendant
of Shah Shams Sabzwari, in Suraj Miani and Baba Safra near
Mosques of Multan
The famous mosques of Multan are Wali Mohammad Mosque in
Chowk Bazar built by Ali Mohammad Khakwani in 1758 A.D.,
Mosque Phulhatt in Chowk Bazar built by Emperor Farrukh
Siyar, Baqarabadi Mosque built by Baqar Khan in 1720 A.D.
and the beautiful Eidgah Mosque built by Nawab Abdul Samad
Khan in 1735 A.D.
Multan has some beautiful modern buildings such as Nishtar
Medical College, University Campus, Arts Council building
with and auditorium, Multan Railway Station building the
famous Clock Tower building of the Multan Municipal Corporation
and State Bank of Pakistan etc.
There are places of recreation in Multan such as the Stadium,
the Lake Chaman zar-e-Askari and Company Bagh in the Multan
Fort, Lange Khan Garden, Aam-Khas Garden and the parks at
Bohar Gate, Chowk Shaheedan, Tabbi Sher Khan and the Nawan
Shaher in and around Multan.
Festivals, Fairs and Meals
Religious festivals in Multan are a peculiar mixture of
devotion and recreation. Multan is famous for its shrines.
Annual Urs is held on every shrine. Well known are the Urs
of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Bahauddin Zakaria, Shah Shams Sabzwari,
Shah Jamal, Sher Shah and Mela Ludden Pir, etc.
Lahore is the second largest city in Pakistan and
provincial capital of Punjab. Apart from being the
cultural and academic center of the country, Lahore is
the Mughal "show-window" of Pakistan. The origins of
Lahore are shrouded in the mists of antiquity.
Reminiscence of its hoary past are the remains of a
subterranean temple in the northern part of the Royal
fort, attributed to Lord Rama, the legendry hero of
Ramayana. Lying on the main trade and invasion routes
to the sub-continent, Lahore has been ruled and
plundered by a number of dynasties and heroes. However
it touched the zenith of its glory during the rule of
Mughals. The Mughals, who were famous as builders,
gave Lahore some of its finest architectural monuments
that are extinct today.
Lahore is linked with the rest of the country by air, rail
and road. It lies on the Grand Trunk Road or the
Shahrah-e-Aazam, which connected Kabul with Calcutta. The
road was originally built by the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri
in the 16th century. The Mughals also used this road as
means of communications. One can cross over to India at
Wahga, which is about 24kms east of Lahore.
PLACES OF INTEREST:
The most important historical monuments of the Mughals in
Lahore are the Royal Fort, the Badshahi mosque, the Tombs of
Emperor Jehangir, Empress noor Jehan, Anarkali and Asif-Jah
and the famous Shalimar garden.
ROYAL FORT LAHORE:
Although most parts of the Royal Fort were constructed
around 1566 A.D. by the Mughal Emperor, Akbar the
great, there is evidence that a mud fort was in
existence here in 1021 A.D. as well, when mahmood of
Ghazna invaded this area. Akbar demolished the old mud
fort and constructed most of the modern Fort, as we
see it today, on the old foundations. Construction of
the fort dates back to the early Hindu period.
The Royal Fort is rectangular. The main gates are located
alongside the center of the western and eastern walls. Every
succeeding Mughal Emperor as well as the Sikhs, and the
British in their tom, added a pavilion, palace or all to the
Fort. Emperor Jehangir extended the gardens and constructed
the palaces that we see today in the Jehangir's Quadrangle,
while Shah-Jehan added Diwan-e-Khas, Moti Masjid (Pearl
Mosque) and his own sleeping Chambers.Aurangzeb built the
impressive main gate which faces the Hazoori Bagh lying in
between the Badshahi Mosque and the Fort. The famous Sheesh
Mahal or palace of mirrors, is in the north-east corner of
the Fort. This is the most beautiful palace in the Fort and
is decorated with small mirrors of different colors set.
The part of the wall of the Elephant Steps towards the
Fort's inner gate are scarred by bullet marks, bearing
testimony to the Sikh Civil War of 1847 A.D.
A party of Sikhs had mounted their guns on one of the
minarets of the mosque across the courtyard from where they
fired on their opponents. The Sleeping Chamber of Mai Jindan
houses a very interesting museum with relics from Mughal and
the Sikh periods.
Three miles east of Lahore are the famous Shalimar
Gardens laid out by the Mughal EperorShah-Jehan in 1642
A.D. The Gardens are spread out in typical Mughal style
and are surrounded by high walls with watch-towers at
the four corners. Originally, the gardens were spread
over seven ascending terraces, but only three remain now
which cover an area of about 42 acres. The brick-work of
the floors of the three terraces have been repaired
according to their original designs which differ on all
three terraces. There is a marble pavilion under which
water flows and cascades down over a carved, marble slab
creating a water-fall effect
Across the water-fall is a marble throne. At the end of
the second terrace is a beautiful structure called Sawan
Bhadon, a sunken tank niches on its three sides. Water
cascades down from it in sheets in front of the niches,
producing the sound of falling rain. In the olden times,
small oil lamps were placed in the niches which reflected
myriad colors, through the water. Similar gardens have the
proud privilege of being the stage of all important state
Minar-ePakistan is a new landmark in Lahore and stands in
the Iqbal Park to commemorate the date when a resolution was
passed there back in 1940 demanding the creation of a
separate homeland for the Muslims of this sub-continent. The
Minar is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture and has
been very boldly designed. The Minar is about 60 meters
Kim's Gun or Zamzama:
Immortalized by Rudyard Kipping in his accounts is this
famous gun now popularly known as the Kim's Gum. It is
placed just outside the museum on the Sharah-e-Quaid-e-Azam
in front of the campus.
Wazir Khan's Mosque:
In the old part of the town and off the Kashmiri Bazaar,
reputedly the most beautiful Mosque in the sub-continent is
situated. The Mosque was built in 1683 A.D. by Hakim
Ilmuddin who was Minister to Shah-Jehan and was generally
known as Wazir Khan. It is a marvelous specimen of tile work
and arabesque paintings.
The emperor or the Badshahi Mosque is across the
courtyard from Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort. The
Mosque which is made up entirely of sand-stone was
built by Emperor Aurangzeb, the last of the great
Mughals, in a record time of the two and-a-half years.
Its construction was completed by 1674 A.D. It has a
beautiful gate-way which measures 21.33 meters in
length and a courtyard that measures 161.5 x 160.6
meters and is said to be the largest mosque courtyard
in the world for outdoor prayers.
The marble domes cover seven prayer chambers. For lofty
minarets stand at the four corners of the mosque, each with
an outer circumference of 20 meters, soaring up to 54
meters. In the chambers above the gate of the mosque, are
housed relics attributed to the Holy Prophet of Islam peace
be upon him, His Daughter and His Son-in-Law and are said to
have been brought to the sub-continent by Amir Taimur.
Within the Mosque almost all the colors have been used for
painting the floral designs but the overall effect remains
one of sobriety, piousness and simplicity.
The Golden Mosqeu:
Golden Mosque is also situated in the Kashmiri Bazaar. It
was built in 1753 A.D.by Nawab Syed Bhikari Khan, who was
Deputy Governor of Lahore.It is a remarkably beautiful
mosque with three golden domes.
Samadhi of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh:
The ashes of the great Sikh ruler of Punjab, Maharaja
Ranjeet Singh, and of his four wives and several slave girls
lie in a dome adjacent to the Hazoori Bagh.
Other moments include the Dai Anga Mosque, Mariam Zamani
Mosque and various shrines of Muslim Sufi Scholars and
saints and the tomb of Allama Muhammad Iqbal near Badshahi
Shrine of Data Sahib:
Close to the junction of the Lower Mall and the Circular
Road is the shrine of Data Sahib was a great sufi saint
whose well known work, "Kashf-ul-Mahjub" has been translated
from the original Persian into several European languages
and is considered a classic. Attached to the Shrine is a
Allama Iqbal's Tomb:
Outside the Badshahi mosque, near its steps, lies the
tomb of Allama Iqbal, the poet-philosopher of the
East. The mausoleum is a mixture of Afghan and Moorish
style of architecture and is constructed entirely of
red sandstone which was quarried and brought from
Mausoleum of Emperor Jehangir:
The tomb of the fourth great Mughal Emperor, Jehangir,
lies three miles north-west of Lahore across the river Ravi.
It has a majestic structure made of red sand-stone and
marble. The outer entrance to the tomb opens out into a
court-yard which was used as a caravan serai during Mughal
times. An etrance to the right leads into a Mughal garden
with exact geometrical patterns balancing each side. The
marble tomb is approached from four corridors leading from
the garden. three of these corridors are closed by intricate
marble screens. The marble grave is elaborately inlaid with
floral designs and the 99 Attributes of God are inscribed on
its two sides. On the top is a verse from the Holy Quran.
The tomb was built by Queen Noor Jehan and the Emperor's son
Shah-Jehan, around 1637 A.D.
Qutbuddin Aibak's Tomb:
He was appointed Governor of India in 1191 A.D. by
Muhammad Ghauri. He established the slave Dynasty on the
death of Muhammad Ghauri in 1206 when he assumed
independence of his reign and was followed by nine other
slave kings. He was a patron of the building art and is
known to have erected some monumental stone building in
Delhi and elsewhere. A very avid player of polo, he died in
Lahore in 1210 A.D. While playing the game. His tomb can be
visited in Anarkali Bazaar.
Asif Khan's Mausoleum:
In the courtyard near Jehangir tomb lies buried his
brother-in-law, Asif Khan, father of Shah Jehan's beloved
Queen Arjumand Bano. He lies in a tomb which today shows
little of its former splendor.
Nur Jehan's Tomb:
The Empress Nur Jehan, "Light of the world" was the only
Empress whose name appeared on the coins of the Mughal
empire. She was buried in 1645 A.D. at Shahdara (Lahore)
outside Jehangir's mausoleum across the railway line.
Her tomb once had a marble cenotaph which she had built
herself during her life time. After the decline of Mughal
rule, the tomb suffered extensive damages along with her
husband's tomb at the hands of Sikh marauders when they
gained power during the early part of nineteenth century.
Both were stripped of most of its original beauty and
splendor. All treasure and tiles, it is said, were carted
off to decorate the Golden Temple at Amrita India.
The tomb of Nadira Begum alias Anarkali, is situated
in a corner of the Civil Secretariat of Punjab
Governent at Lahore.The tomb is circular in shape and
rooted with a vast and lofty dome supported from
inside by eight massive arches 12 feet 3 inches thick.
It is a masterpiece of solid masonry work early Mughal
period and is neatly and beautifully fitted up.
Opposite the old University Hall, a Mughal style building
on the Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, houses the Lahore museum. The
museum contains some fine specimens of Mughal and Sikh
door-way and wood-work and has a big collection of paintings
dating back to Indo-Pakistan, Mughal, Sikh and British
times. It has also a collection of musical instruments,
ancient jewellery, textile, poetry and armory. There are
relics from the Graeco-Pactrian times as well as some
Tibetan and Nepalese exhibits.
A very large and interesting private Museum known as
Faqirkhana lies inside the Bhati Gate and is worth visiting.
The museum houses a variety of old paintings, including some
by great masters, original manuscripts in different
languages and artifacts from South East Asia and the
Anarkali bazaar is the most fascinating of the city's many
bazaars. The alleys and lanes of this bazaar are full of
exciting wares, especially traditional crafts like leather
ware, embroidered garments glass bangles, beaten gold and
silver jewellery, creations in silk. Any thing that you wish
for a bargain.
Hiran Minar is set in peaceful evirons near Lahore. It
was constructed by Emperor Jehangir as a monument to
Hansraj, one of his pet antelopes. It is a popular
picnic resort with a lake and boating facilities.
Chhanga Manga is a man-made forest 68 kms from Lahore.
There is a lake, and a miniature railway which winds its way
through its forest. Chhanga Manga has 12,510 acres of
plantations. It is a popular picnic spot spread over 50
acres with a lake and row boats, motor boats, children's
park, swimming pool, cafeteria, canteen and rest houses.
The archaeological site of Harappa is 204 kms south of
Lahore. The town flourished at the time when the Indus
valley Civilization was at its zenith, about 4,500 years
The Park is 28 kms from Lahore. It can be visited by road
and by rail. A rail-car leaves for Jallo Railway Station
every half hour. Spread over an area of 450 acres, it has
expanses of lawns, a forest research center, a children's
park, zoo, a small museum and a gift ship.
There are four famous parks in Lahore namely:
- Bagh-e-Jinnah Race Course Park, Gulberg Road.
- Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, Allama Iqbal Town.
- Model Town Park, Model Town.
- Nawaz Sharif Park, Ferozepur Road.
These parks have amusement avenues such as play lands for
children, mini zoos, aviaries and miniature lakes as well as
peddle and steamboats. Wahga Border:
This check post is about 30 kms from Lahore and is the
cross-over point for travelers into India by the land route.
It is open daily to foreigners only (except Indian and
Pakistani nationals) from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. PST.
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